Chapter 11: the Jews of France
The Jewish community of France, the second largest Diaspora community in the world, is in many ways unique among the Jewish communities of the world. It is, on the one hand, the earliest community in the world to be fully emancipated, freed from restrictive laws after many centuries of limitations and discrimination. On the other hand, it is a community that still conspicuously suffers from anti-Semitism, and which lives in constant apprehension, conscious of its vulnerability. Thus it is a community of surprises and many contradictions.