Hatikvah Vision – text studies

What makes Israel unique? The miraculous combination of three key concepts: Freedom, Peoplehood, and the Land of Israel. Only in the State of Israel are these concepts able to live in full relationship with each other.

Here you can download four study booklets (chevruta) with traditional and modern texts together with guiding questions, for your use.

Four Hatikvah Questions Explained


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We need to talk about Israel.

Too often it seems that our conversations about Israel are either too cerebral to be meaningful, or too passionate to be intelligent. We need to be able to bring both our heads and our hearts to bear. This is no easy task, as we face at least three challenges.

Tent or Tank?

How can we easily delineate the parameters of the tent, making it a Middle Eastern kind of tent – that has defined edges, but that is open to all sides?

open bedouin tent


How can we speak in universal terms without losing our own particular authenticity?

Simplifying Complexity

Finally, can we sum up the complexity in a simple way that isn’t simplistic?

At Makom, the Israel Education Lab, we believe we have something to offer. An approach and a program that addresses all three of these challenges.


Let’s start from the universal. We would suggest that there are four questions underlying all conflict in the world…


1. One driving question underlying most news headlines is “How do we keep safe?” 


2. The second question is: “Who are We and how should We behave?”


3. The third question is simple, but growing increasingly complex: “How can we be free?”

freedom of speech
4. Finally, as we are seeing that the questions of home, homeland, and territory has returned with ever-increasing urgency, we ask “How do we make a place our own?” 

Often the most burning issues draw on all four questions together. As refugees desperately seek safety in Europe, and Europeans ask themselves what is their distinctly European response as well as their national response, while the principle of freedom of movement is suddenly in question, and borders represent a moral challenge – we can see that addressing these four questions is a way of speaking to the world, not just to Jews.


From Universal to Jewish

What is the Jewish way of wording these crucial universally-shared questions?

We at Makom add a question-mark to the four Hebrew words that make up the penultimate line of the Hatikvah Israeli National Anthem:

4HQ Postcard-01 צ'רקה-COLOR_Page_2

“To be” asks questions of Safety and Security. “People” asks about who We are and how We should behave. “Free” asks about Rights and Responsibilities, and “In Our Land” asks questions of home, homeland, and borders.

Before breaking down how these four questions play out in an Israeli context, let’s consider the four words as a sentence. “To Be a People, Free In Our Land” is something of a consensus aspiration

In this language of liberal national aspiration, Israel is the embodiment of being the People of Israel, Free in the Land of Israel. There is also significant international support for the Palestinians to be a Palestinian People Free in the Land of Palestine.

Anyone who does not agree that we have the right to be the People of Israel free in the Land of Israel, is “outside the tent”.



Rather than excluding some, this construction allows us to understand and include many more people “inside the tent”, and to dialogue far more constructively with those outside.

Here the Four Hatikvah Questions (4HQ) come into their own.  For while we can expect those “inside the tent” to agree with the sentence, we don’t have to reach consensus on the answers to the questions!


fightTo be?
All of us inside the tent agree that Israel should exist. But we do not all agree on the way we should define an existential threat. It is entirely legitimate to argue about the best means to defeat or neutralize a threat, and we are bound to continue to question whether or when we are free to disregard a threat and to just be..



peopleThe Jewish People? It would be impossible to be “inside the tent” of pro-Israel discourse without acknowledging the centrality of the Jewish People to the enterprise. But it is completely fair to question the way in which Jewish tradition and religion plays a role in modern Israel. Questions of social solidarity within Israel, and between Jews throughout the world will always be ongoing policy questions. And the way in which the Jewish People should relate to people who are not Jewish will rightly resonate throughout our moral considerations. The fact that we might argue on this question does not make us anti-Zionists…

To imagine a State of Israel that is not democratic is anathema to real lovers of Israel. But questions of pluralism,  electoral systems, of how ongoing control over areas East of the Green Line affects our democracy, questions of human rights, creativity, innovation – these are the kind of questions that keep us alive!



zionIn Our Land? The days of considering the Uganda Plan are long gone – Israel must be located in Biblical Israel. But which part? How large a part? With access to other parts? What makes a homeland? These are all legitimate, live, and crucial questions.



The Zionist enterprise can be defined as the ongoing drive to implement ever-better answers to these four questions of Hope.


When it comes down to it, the Israel conversation is made up of four questions.

The Four Hatikvah Questions.

4HQ.  The Four Questions of Hope.

4HQ is a simple way to contain the complexity that is Israel. It is universal yet particular, and it offers a constructive approach to the “Big Tent”.


How can we put 4HQ to use?

A Thinking Tool

First of all, 4HQ is a way to listen to Israel conversations, and a way to think clearly about Israel issues. What is she saying? What is he shouting about? Listen for which of the underlying questions they are asking, and address them. The conversation will be far richer, far more constructive. When the latest headline screams across the Washington Post or New York Times, see where it addresses which of the Four Hatikvah Questions. Is it about existential threat? Is it about being Jewish? Is it about democracy? The Land?

insert 4HQ

A Mapping and Planning Tool

When looking at a calendar of events, ask yourself whether you are covering all four of the questions? If you notice a weight on questions of security and land, with little addressing freedom, perhaps your programming has a right-leaning bias. If freedom dominates your agenda, with no acknowledgement of threats, then the chances are you are leaning left-wards! Programming that wishes to both represent the fullness of Israel, and the breadth of your community’s connections to Israel, should attempt to address all four questions.

An Aid to Celebration

When we celebrate Chanukah, or Pesach, there are one or two texts, a few traditions, that we can easily refer to every year. But Yom Ha’atzmaut? What exactly is it that we are celebrating? For the first time in two thousand years, ever since May 14th, 1948, we have been able to answer all four primary questions of hope with a resounding “Yes!” Do we exist? Are we a living breathing People? Do we rule ourselves democratically in the Land of Israel? Yom Ha’atzmaut is the day to celebrate the fundamentals.

A Response Tool

When the latest hot topic comes burning across the media, and the community looks to you to convene a conversation in response, we tend to look to 4HQ. For example, when Prime Minister Netanyahu came to speak to the U.S. Congress, some communities wished to watch a live screening of the speech, and then sit around tables to talk about what they saw and heard. We at Makom provided them with discussion table mats, presenting key questions in the framework of 4HQ.

congress speech discussion guide2

Makom training in 4HQ


Tools are one thing, but learning how to use them is another thing entirely!


  • Makom can come to you and run short or in-depth customized training for your staff, lay leaders, and/or para-professionals.
  • We can offer 4HQ training as a component of your trip to Israel, and/or build for you a a 4HQ-filtered tour of Israel.
  • You can turn to us for source materials, discussion guides, etc, according to your needs.




For more details please contact Robbie Gringras,
Makom’s Creative Director, on robbieg [at] jafi [dot] org



500 words on Yom Ha’atzmaut – When all the questions marks turn to exclamation marks


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Cross-posted with ejewishphilanthropy

Yom Ha’atzmaut? Again? This year of all years?

Whenever I approach Yom Ha’atzmaut with a sinking feeling, I always remember the point made by Professor Yosef Klausner:

“For three hundred and sixty-four days of the year we are busy with criticism. We criticize the nation’s priorities, and the nation’s leaders. We count the many mistakes that our leaders and ministers make… But a nation must have one day in a year that is a real celebration. On that single solitary day, all the prosecutions must cease, and the harsh criticism must stop…”

Klausner wrote these words back in 1953, when the State of Israel was only 5 years old!

So what is it that we should be celebrating on this one day?

Ideally Yom Ha’atzmaut should mark one of the most significant events in Jewish history. It is an event packed with meaning for Jews throughout the world, not just in Israel.

But what is the nature of that “meaning”?

We can’t even come up with a shared narrative.

When does the Israel story begin? 1948? The Dreyfuss Trial? The destruction of the Second Temple? Abraham’s journey?

Would you say that the Holocaust should be part of our Yom Ha’atzmaut narrative? If you have an unequivocal answer to that question, I assure you that you have a friend who would answer the opposite.

At Makom we would say that the meaning of Yom Ha’atzmaut can be encapsulated not through a narrative, but through the Four Hatikvah Questions.TBAPFIOL

For the first time in two thousand years, ever since May 14th, 1948, we have been able to answer all Four Hatikvah Questions with a resounding “Yes!”

To Be? – Yes!

Peoplehood? – Yes!

Free? – Yes!

In Our Land? – Check!

In this brilliant illustration, Shay Charka marks the nine-day roller-coaster between Yom HaShoah, and Yom Ha’atzmaut. Just imagine what answers we might have reached to the Four Hatikvah Questions in 1945…

The Nine Days!

Do we now share questions about threats to our ongoing existence? Certainly. The desperate arguments will wait for one day.

Do we disagree about the ways in which our heritage, solidarity, and values are expressed? Sure. Let’s put the disagreements on temporary hold.

Are we concerned about Israel’s democratic structures and discourse?

Do we agree on the borders of our Land? On relations with the Palestinians, who say it is their Land too?

All crucial questions. We’ll talk about them on the other 364 days.

Imagine a Yom Ha’atzmaut celebration that chose to focus on these four blessings. The songs, the dances, the speeches, the parties, the performances, that celebrate the four-fold answer of “yes”.

Yom Ha’atzmaut is the day on which the Four Hatikvah Questions turn into exclamation marks.

500 words on the 4HQ Framework – an Answer with Four Questions


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Pluralism is all well and good, but the amount of different opinions on, approaches to, and definitions of Israel Education, is driving us all crazy.

All of us in Israel Education find ourselves talking at cross-purposes, inadvertently undermining one another, and further confusing an already-challenging discourse. Cacophony is only good when the orchestra is tuning up to play together.

Is there one simple, easily communicated idea that can unify everyone without requiring uniformity?

Is there one way to explain, promote, define, and explore the meaning of Israel to Jews that includes everyone, offends no one, and yet says something useful?

Probably not. It’s a big ask, after all. But that doesn’t mean we shouldn’t keep trying…

We at Makom call our current approach 4HQ – the Four Hatikvah Questions.

Our feeling is that no matter what your answers are, or what the answers are that you intend your students to emerge with, the Four Hatikvah Questions are common to all. They emerge, of course, from the penultimate line in the Hatikvah Anthem: Lihiyot Am Hofshi B’Artzenu – To Be A People, Free In Our Land.

Taken on its own, “To Be A People, Free In Our Land” is a universal aspiration, by no means unique to the Jews.

The Kurds aspire to exist as a Kurdish People, Free in the land of Kurdistan. The Scottish People seriously considered becoming Free in Scotland. Catalonians, Tibetans, and Palestinians (we’ll come back to them in a later blog) – all aspire to be Peoples free in their lands. Zionism is the Jewish version of this universal (and therefore one might argue universally legitimate) aspiration: To be the People of Israel, Free in the Land of Israel.

All that is required for the educator, is to break this line down into its four Hebrew words, and add a question mark to each:

·        To Be? – what does it take to survive? how can we thrive?

·        People? – what does it mean to be connected to my People? my heritage? our ideals?

·        Free? – are we democratic? are we responsible? are we creative?

·        Our Land? – why land? which land? whose land?

Israel is an ongoing answer to these Four Hatikvah Questions.


Those mainly concerned with Advocacy might find they focus on “To Be?”, at the expense of other questions. Those on the left may emphasize “Freedom?” without digging into the existential threats hovering around the question of “To Be”. Some are more drawn to the universal ideas of “To be” and “Free”: Others tend more towards the particularism of “People” and “In Our Land”.

A full, rich curriculum would explore all four.

In future blogs I plan to tease out how 4HQ offers:

  1. A useful tool to differentiate between Israel’s enemies, and critical friends.
  2. A way to Ask Big Questions about Israel.
  3. A “rule of thumb” for taking educational advantage of complex current affairs headlines.
  4. A model for transforming Israel education in the Jewish world.
  5. A shared values proposition for the Diaspora and Israel.






4HQ through the eyes of Shay Charka


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As part of our development of the Four Hatikvah Questions – 4HQ – we approached Israeli cartoonist Shay Charka to offer his visual interpretation. We are delighted to present three pairs of images offering contrasting aspects of To Be, Free, and In Our Land, and a fourth image that speaks to the Jewish People.

You’ll note that these genderless humanoids have kind of Magen David/Star of David heads. We shall be using these images throughout our educational work in different contexts. Here we present them all together, without labels. You are invited to label them yourselves!

4HQ according to Charka

4HQ according to Charka

A People, Free in Our Land – text studies


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Click here to download an additional collection of texts with guiding questions.

Video – Yonatan Ariel laying out Makom’s overall approach



Yonatan Ariel, Executive Director of Makom, spoke engagingly and entertainingly at the General Assembly of 2011. On this panel, Yonatan plays out what Israel education must become. (Starts at 11:16)

The panel, entitled “Israel: A New Narrative”, was chaired and introduced by John Ruskay, Executive Vice-President and CEO, UJA-Federation of New York, and Yonatan Ariel shared the panel with Yehuda Kurtzer, President of the Shalom Hartman Institute of North America (7:52), and with Elizabeth Wolfe, Chair of UJA Federation of Greater Toronto. 

Yonatan Ariel focuses on the Hatikvah Vision: To Be A Free People In Our Land, Yehuda Kurtzer explores the latest work of the Hartman Institute in Israel engagement, and Elizabeth Wolfe speaks of the experiences of Toronto in working with us (26:00).

Am – People – עם


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Click here to download the printable pdf of the chevruta study booklet.


Chofshi – Free – חופשי


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Click here for the downloadable pdf of the chevruta text study exploring the Jewish People’s connection to the concept of freedom.

B’Artzenu – In Our Land – בארצנו


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Click here for the printable pdf of the chevruta text study exploring the Jewish People’s connection to the Land of Israel.

The Hatikvah Vision – case studies


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Click here for printable pdf of case studies where three values combine into current issues.

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